Between the great wildlife sanctuaries of Ngorongoro and Serengeti in 1931, Dr. Louis and Mary Leakey began his search for human remains in this dry, desolate gorge, working year after year without finding a human fossil of any importance.

Yet he kept at his task, and joined by his wife Mary, found his reward 28 years after he began in 1959 the skull and jaw of a species of man Australopithecus Zinjanthropus boisei that became extinct more than 1.7 million years ago. 

The archaeological significance of Olduvai increased recently when a team of Americans and Tanzanians unearthed human skull fragments, teeth and limbs dating 1.8 million years ago. The discovery made in July, 1986 some 25 years after the celebrated Leakey discoveries, included 302 bones and teeth belonging to an adult female.